Vitamin D, boron and other forms of nutritional supplement to
reduce deadly sepsis inflammation with coronavirus COVID-19; Concerns
about NSAIDs, ibuprofen, aspirin & paracetamol / acetaminophen;
Potassium gluconate solution instead of blood pressure medicationRobin Whittle email@example.com 2020-03-21 Last update 2020-04-01 02:50 AEDT
- Clinicians, researchers and public health administrators please start here: #msg with special attention to the vitamin D section #03-vit-d .
COVID-19 harms and kills people primarily through Acute
Respiratory Distress Syndrome ARDS - and the organ damage caused by
sepsis. Both of these are caused by an overly-aggressive
pro-inflammatory disregulation of the immune response.
Research in 2015 shows that ARDS, as caused by a variety of infections,
only happens to people who have extremely low levels of vitamin
D3. This is consistent with numerous research projects which have
established that vitamin D deficiency is the primary or sole cause of
numerous forms illness caused by disregulated inflammatory responses.
There's no reason to believe that ARDS caused by COVID-19 is any different.
So it is reasonable to assume that the people who suffer grave harm to
their lungs and other organs, and who are killed by COVID-19, are
primarily or wholly people with very low vitamin D levels - with a
possible further factor being that they used antipyretic drugs which
greatly worsened their condition (see next dot point).
On this basis (please read the research articles I link to below) I
urge the WHO, national health authorities, doctors and nurses to advise
all adults to take vitamin D supplements urgently. One of the
research projects mentioned below gave 100,000IU a day to ICU patients,
for five days, and found that it reduced their stay in hospital from an
average of 36 days, to 18 days.
This may seem too good to be true - the worst effects of a global
pandemic being largely or entirely avoided if everyone takes 4000IU or
more of vitamin D3 a day for the next month or two. It may be
hard to imagine that such complex and tragic outcomes can be caused by
such a simple and easy to correct nutritional deficiency. But
that is what the research indicates - and it is entirely consistent
with the importance of vitamin D in numerous processes in the body.
As of 2020-03-31, Dr Paul Marik and colleagues recommend 5000IU
vitamin D3 a day both for hospitalized patients and for prophylaxis for
people over 60 and those with comorbidies. This and other
recommendations are listed below: #03-vit-d-dose
- The research review regarding antipyretics, NSAIDs, paracetamol etc. is at a separate page fever/
. All the research I can find indicates that these drugs should
not be used with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for the WHO
and health authorities to warn people of the dangers of using these
drugs at home when they contract COVID-19 with fever.
Below (and in the fever/ and kna/ pages) you will find an updated version of an email I sent to a number
of COVID-19 researchers and clinicians, starting on 21st March 2020. It contains suggestions
for advice I believe they should be giving regarding what people can do
to cope, at home, without relying on hospitals (which will soon be
completely overloaded) with COVID-19 induced inflammation (sepsis)
which causes life-threatening pneumonia, organ damage and failure
(heart, liver, kidneys) and so, potentially, permanent disability or
Clinicians (doctors and nurses) have vast knowledge and often
extraordinary skills. However, in general, they are not properly
informed about research into nutrition. Their view of
medicine and health can be unduly influenced by drug companies - who
are only interested in substances they can patent and profit from.
On 21st March 2020 I thought some prominent COVID-19 researchers and
clinicians needed a pep talk about all this. I was also concerned
that many people would take fever-reducing drugs at home, and so reduce
their body's ability to combat the virus.
I am an electronic technician and computer programmer. I created
this website http://aminotheory.com in 2011 primarily for my new observations and
etiological theory of Restless Legs Syndrome:
This is not a commercial site. It generates no revenue. I
am not selling anything. (I never got around to getting the
certificates etc. for encrypted https.)
I update the text
below according to new information and any feedback I receive from
clinicians, researchers, or anyone at all. Please email your
constructive critiques to firstname.lastname@example.org .
I am not a doctor. I have no medical training.
I have not even done a first aid course - though I think everyone
should learn this in high school. The fact that I think these are
good ideas should not affect your own decisions about healthcare for
yourself and your loved ones. You should read and consult very
A list of coronavirus links is at the end of this page: #links
By all means direct your doctor, nurse or naturopath to read what follows.
If your decisions are influenced by what you read below, it should be
because you have evaluated the arguments, followed the links and read
the research articles I cite and because you take responsibility for your own life
The text following #msg is written for people with medical training. If you can't
understand it clearly, please rely on the judgment of someone who can.
I have expanded on a few acronyms with fuller text and.or [WP
Wikipedia links, which were not in the emails I sent. I have also
boldfaced and highlighted some text and added headings.
Please quote selected passages in your social media feeds, discussion forums etc. - always with a link to this page's URL: http://aminotheory.com/cv19/
Please do not copy the entire page, or substantial parts of it, to other sites, since I may update the text at any time, and I don't want out-of-date versions of this text floating around the Web.
Paracetamol (Panadol) is the same as acetaminophen (Tylenol etc.) It reduces fever and is generally not regarded as an NSAID [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonsteroidal_anti-inflammatory_drug] - a class of drugs which includes aspirin and ibuprofen.
Key points of the message to clinicians and researchers below
These points are stripped of arguments and references, and are a guide
to the message below #msg , which would ideally be a much longer
read the message, with the research it cites AND read the disclaimer
you shouldn't act on suggestions regarding health from an electronic technician
unless you have
researched the arguments to your satisfaction, read and
ideally consulted very widely indeed and take full responsibility for your decisions.
- There are arguments against taking ibuprofen, aspirin,
paracetamol/acetaminophen etc. to lower fever, except perhaps if it
- There are particular, well researched, arguments for not using
aspirin at all - since aspirin contributed significantly to the death
toll of the Spanish Flu, especially among young adults: academic.oup.com/cid/article/49/9/1405/301441
. "early deaths exhibited extremely 'wet', sometimes hemorrhagic
lungs". Now read a despairing report of COVID-19 patients from an
New Orleans ICU doctor www.propublica.org/article/a-medical-worker-describes--terrifying-lung-failure-from-covid19-even-in-his-young-patients
where the same red frothy symptoms appear, including in people in their
30s and 40s. See advice on this in the blue box below.
- France banned the use of ibuprofen, apparently due to a
report of four young people with severe symptoms which seem to have
resulted from their early use of and NSAID - and ibuprofen and aspirin
are the most commonly used NSAIDs. (Paracetamol/acetaminophen is not
usually considered and NSAID).
- So the WHO and other health authorities urgently need to provide
advice on which, if any, of these drugs to take. I am also
concerned with liver toxicity from paracetamol (I am sick of typing the
other word!) due to people self-dosing at home while the virus damages
their liver's capacity to break it down by the first pathway, leaving
the second pathway to produce permanent protein damage from its NAPQI by-product.
- Please see the separate page on this: http://aminotheory.com/cv19/fever/ .
- Pneumonia and death and disability due to lung, heart, liver and
kidney failure (and the risk of later bacterial infection) are all
driven by sepsis www.sepsis.org/sepsis-basics/what-is-sepsis/ , which results from the body's overly-aggressive, inflammatory, immune response to viral infection.
are several readily available nutrients which are known to
reduce this excessive inflammatory response: vitamin D, boron (borax is
on supermarket shelves, in the laundry department), omega 3 (fish) oil,
vitamins C and B1 and zinc. The last three, starting with oral
vitamin C and 225mg zinc (which is a lot) are part of the Marik protocol for COVID-19 patients. Most people are deficient in these,
especially the first three - unless they take adequate supplements. Boron is not even considered an
essential nutrient, despite decades of research showing that it is.
- I believe that if people took all these, including ~12mg boron a
day, that their risk of COVID-19-induced sepsis harming or killing them
would be greatly reduced. However, I am just an electronic
technician - and unless lay people make their own personal, well-informed,
judgments about it, and take full responsibility for these, then they should only act on advice when it
comes from clinicians.
- I view the looming massive
toll of disability and death as being caused primarily by easily
avoided, very common, nutritional deficiencies, plus of course the
impact of smoking, alcohol-induced damage and other conditions.
Type 2 diabetes is partly or largely caused by excessive
inflammation. This is well established. What is not so
clearly known by clinicians is that nutritional deficiencies contribute
enormously to this inflammation.
- There is unresolved controversy about the impact of blood
pressure drugs on COVID-19 patients. High blood pressure,
cardiovascular disease and stroke are all strongly driven - to the point
of being caused - by a low potassium to sodium (as salt) ratio in the
people, including especially doctors - who are frequently overly
influenced by drug companies and outdated guidelines, rather than being
informed by research into nutrition - do not know that potassium
supplementation is possible. It is certainly desirable (unless you have drug company shares), since,
with some salt avoidance, it removes the cause of hypertension, rather
than using drugs to interfere the body's sodium, potassium and blood
pressure regulatory systems. All these drugs have side
effects, including perhaps increased COVID-19 disability and
Potassium tablets don't work, since we need 2 or 3 grams a
day. Potassium solutions are thought not to work, because almost
thinks that potassium salts have a very strong taste. What almost
no-one knows is that potassium gluconate has a very mild taste in
solution. 4.5kg a year per adult gives about 2.4 grams potassium
a day, typically doubling the potassium to sodium ratio. I think
that this, combined with generally avoiding the saltiest foods,
would be more effective than hypertension drugs - and have no ill
See the separate page on this, written primarily for clinicians and
researchers, but with a recipe for how my wife Tina and I use potassium
gluconate in solution, with borax for boron: kna/ (K means potassium, Na means sodium.)
Updated version of the message I wrote to clinicians and researchers
Poor survival rate once people need breathing assistance
Most people's battle against the virus will be lost or won at
home, not in hospitals or doctors' clinics. Zhou et al.
(below) report that of 34 patients receiving invasive mechanical
ventilation or ECMO [WP], only 1 survived. The survival rate for
non-invasive ventilation was 2/26 and for nasal breathing support,
8/41. Antivirals and antibiotics help, but we will soon run out
Coronavirus home remedies as suggested here - nutritional supplements
to enhance immune system function, especially by reducing the
overly-aggressive pro-inflammatory responses which cause sepsis -
can make a substantial contribution to public health in this
disastrous situation, given doubling times of half a week, and the
impossibility of retaining sufficient social distancing for 6 months or
Clear guidance regarding paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin and NSAIDs in generalPlease see the separate page on this: http://aminotheory.com/cv19/fever/ .
Reducing the cytokine storm of sepsis
The cytokine storm, lead by IL-6, TNF-alpha and other pro-inflammatory cytokines is the primary or sole cause
of death - and probably of pneumonia and so most hospital
admissions. The graphs in Fei Zhou et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study
show that those who survived usually did so without radically elevated
IL-6 levels, and that those whose IL-6 levels kept on rising
died. Thrombosis (D-dimer) increased progressively in those who
died, but not in survivors. These averages are extremely
divergent. Serum ferritin kept rising in those who died,
indicating not iron overload, but (www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3692.full)
The real enemy with COVID-19 is not the virus itself, but the
excessive and inappropriate inflammatory response to it -
the same thing which drives sepsis, neurodegeneration (Alzheimers,
Parkinsons), osteoporosis, diabetes etc. One probable cause of
that some aspects of our immune system are far more aggressive
than they should be, due to them evolving in the presence of
ubiquitous infection with intestinal parasites and/or H. pylori,
both which attenuate these
mechanisms. However, now is not the time for helminthic therapy. (Google search for helminthic therapy.)
Another set of causes, which can be fixed - and must be fixed in
the next few weeks in order to prevent millions of deaths - are
nutritional deficiencies, particularly in vitamin D, boron, omega
3 PUFAs and probably other nutrients such as vitamin C. For
brevity I state the following arguments as if they were facts.The overly-aggressive inflammatory response which drives sepsis is supposedly not understood: www.sepsis.org/sepsis-basics/what-is-sepsis/ . However, a Google scholar search for inflammation and helminths makes it clear that our lack of intestinal parasites now plays a major role in the excessive, inappropriate, inflammatory response which drives asthma, Alzheimers / Parkinsons disease (and other forms of neurodegeneration), osteoporosis , Crohn's disease, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis etc. etc.
It is also clear, as you will read below, that common nutritional deficiencies also drive this inflammation.
given all this research, do so many disease support groups, clinicians
and some researchers fail to recognise that inadequate nutrition (and
with salt, inappropriate nutrition) drives our overly-aggressive
technicians make sure power supply voltages are correct before
attempting serious fault-finding. Motor mechanics don't work on
poorly performing engines without checking the fuel. Farmers fix
problems with their animals by feeding them correctly. For
instance lameness in pigs is routinely fixed with borax: 2005 article Boron Supplementation Prevents Osteochondrosis in Growing Swine.
Why do doctors put so much
effort into drugs and acute interventions and so little into nutrition
to ensure the body works well in the first place?
A possible answer is that highly
skilled clinicians, researchers and disease support group people
dedicate their lives to helping people with complex, devastating
can't believe that the primary or sole cause of the disease is several
well-researched nutritional deficiencies and excesses which can be fixed.
I have no problem believing this. Electronic devices can
misbehave in all sorts of complex and perplexing ways due to simple
causes such as electrical leakage on the circuit board, temperature
sensitive intermittent failure inside an integrated circuit etc.
Many fault symptoms are complex, and there is usually one or sometimes
two simple (once you find
them) underlying problems which explain it all. Electronics is
complex, but it is child's play compared to cell biology, multicellular
life forms, genetics, immunology, neuroscience etc.
It makes perfect sense to me that human health is terribly impacted due
to one or more nutritional conditions not being met for most people in
our normal lifestyle. We have hundreds of operating conditions
and if only one of them is outside of a proper range, bad things will
happen. There's probably dozens of inputs not being adequately
met. I believe boron is the nutrient most people are most
deficient in. Then vitamin D, potassium, omega 3 fatty acids.
After that are the better known deficiencies such as iron.
It is so much easier to fix these things than live with the
consequences. The fix can't be achieved entirely with food - we
Most people wouldn't tolerate such ill-care for their car. It
would be unethical for a mechanic to be changing valves and pistons on
the engine, adding additives to the oil etc. in an attempt to solve the
problems caused by a fuel or air blockage, or contaminated fuel or
There can be enormous inertia in some areas of medicine. See the section #ssc below for 22 pulmonologists
raising 6,267 signatures in a petition to change what they argue is
damaging guidance on treating sepsis from a major international sepsis
Starting in March 2020 and peaking in May, June and beyond, billions
of people will contract COVID-19 and a substantial fraction of them
will be pushed into sepsis-induced pneumonia, respiratory distress and
organ failure - with a high risk of lasting disability and death.
Doctors, nurses and health
organisations have an urgent responsibility to read the research and make the
connections so they can advise
everyone on readily available nutritional supplements which will reduce
the incidence of sepsis in the months to come. These levels of nutrition are known to be safe. There is no need, or time, for RCTs.
Vitamin D3Please see the section below #03-vit-d-dose
which lists doctor's vitamin D3 recommended doses for prophylaxis and
for those with COVID-19 infection. Dr Paul Marik recommends
5000IU in both cases.
Vitamin D deficiency is a major causative factor for Acute
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which is what kills most people with
boldly titled open access article makes it abundantly clear that very
low levels of vitamin D3 are an essential precondition for most cases
of ARDS. This is cited by 62 other articles.
, et al.
Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
with and at risk of ARDS are highly likely to be deficient, and
severity of vitamin D deficiency relates to increased epithelial
damage, the development of ARDS and survival.
Following adjustment for gender, age, diagnosis, staging data, and pack-years [smoking], patients with vitamin D3 less than 20 nmol/L had a 4.2-fold higher odds of ARDS than patients with vitamin D3 greater than 20 nmol/L (p=0.032).
20nmol/L = 8 ng/ml. This is a very low vitamin D level.
Many of these people are dying due to an easily correctable, extreme,
nutritional deficiency! Every supermarket has vitamin D3
capsules. If they took one or two of these a day they probably
wouldn't be in hospital at all.
kills most of its victims due to ARDS (WP). This results from the same overly-aggressive
pro-inflammatory sepsis which kills people with heart, kidney or liver
failure even if their lungs fail and they are on a ventilator or ECMO.
is just another triggering condition, one of many, for ARDS. However,
it may have unique characteristics which make it a particularly severe
trigger. One such mechanism, which it shares with SARS, is that the
virus attaches to ACE2 (WP) transmembrane proteins in particular types of
cells in the lungs, liver and other organs. When it attaches it causes
the ACE2 molecule to be pulled into the cell, with the virus still
COVID-19 sufferers surely have significantly fewer active ACE2
molecules available to play their role as an enzyme in the
renin-angiotensin system, where moderates processes which increase
blood pressure and have numerous other local effects in particular organs
A 2008 explanation of this system is: journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/physrev.00036.2005 .
The extremely low vitamin D level of ARDS sufferers might, in part, be
explained as an effect of ARDS or of other processes which accompany or
drive it. A much more important explanation for this relationship
is that vitamin D deficiency directly causes or at least significantly contributes to
the sepsis - the overly-aggressive pro-inflammatory response - which in
this scenario manifests as the condition we know as ARDS.
A Google Scholar search for ARDS and vitamin D turns up plenty of articles, but none yet on an RCT involving vitamin D supplementation.
Another perplexed sidebar 2020-03-31 - this time really perplexed:
its current rate of spread, and the health and vitamin D status of the
population as it is now, this disease can be expected to kill millions
of people in these ways in the next few months.
Research clearly shows that ARDS sufferers - due to a variety of causes other
than COVID-19 - are highly deficient in vitamin D3.
reason to think that the subset of people who COVID-19 kills in this
way are not also, on average, highly vitamin D3 deficient.
We are now 3 months into this global pandemic.
Why hasn't the WHO told everyone to supplement vitamin D3?
If they had
issued such advice, it would have been followed very widely by now, and
would probably save millions of people's lives in the next few months.
The causative role of vitamin D in ARDS is no secret. See below for articles which confirm it.
Vitamin D is not controversial, obscure, expensive or dangerous.
It is not a drug with side-effects. It is safe and very well
researched nutrient. So there's no need for an RCT to prove
beyond reasonable doubt that supplementation would reduce the incidence
of ARDS deaths and disability due to COVID-19.
ARDS isn't the only lung problem caused by vitamin D deficiency.
D deficiency (VDD) is closely associated with lung diseases, including
asthma, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory infections.
Here is a trial giving ICU patients high doses of vitamin D3. Of
course it would have been better still if they had taken vitamin D
supplements all their lives. Then they probably would not be in
ICU at all.
There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the critically ill
patient population. Several intensive care unit studies have
demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency = less than 20 ng/mL (see above and below, this is a very low level) and increased hospital
length of stay, readmission rate, sepsis and mortality.
Subjects were administered either placebo, 50,000 IU vitamin D3 or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 daily for 5 consecutive days.
There was a significant decrease in hospital length of stay over time in the 250,000 IU and the 500,000 IU vitamin D3 group, compared to the placebo group:
25 ± 14 and 18 ± 11 days compared to 36 ± 19 days, respectively.
(p = 0.03). (This means that an outcome would only have occurred by chance once in 33 such trials.)
With the knowledge from this trial, how is it ethical to admit people to hospital like this and not give them 500,000IU (12.5mg) vitamin D3 in the first 5 days?
Its not expensive, or risky.
Tina and I take two of these 50,000IU capsules a month. We also get some vitamin D in multivitamins.
They are made by Bio-Tech in the USA. The cost is USD$30 for 100 capsules. The cost of giving ICU patients 500,000 IU vitamin D (12.5mg) is USD$3.00. To save:
36 - 18 = 18 days in hospital
So the cost of avoiding one day in hospital, with vitamin D supplementation = USD$0.17.
If the drug companies found a patentable compound with this
effectiveness and safety profile, they would be selling it for $100 per
capsule AND they would be advertising it to doctors and the public AND
everyone would think it was a modern marvel and be very happy to pay
good money for it.
Instead, because it is a cheap nutrient, which no-one makes much money
from, hardly anyone sings its praises - and year after year, people
suffer grave illness and death, with billions of dollars of hospital
and drug costs, since only a subset of the population use it.
Doctors do, at times, advise their patients to take vitamin D3, omega 3
fatty acids and other nutrients. However, it is my impression
that the dosage can be rather low, such as 2000IU or less, when
research (below) indicates that about twice this would better protect
against numerous diseases.
Vitamin D3 is exceedingly inexpensive. At PureBulk a powder made
up of 0.2549% vitamin D3 sells for USD$93 per kilogram. This
contains 2.549 grams of vitamin D3, at a cost of USD$36.48 per
gram. At 4000IU a day, this would last for 69 years. At
this rate, the 5 million IU (125mg) in the above bottle would cost
At this price, the cost of saving 18 days in hospital would be USD$0.46.
In bulk, a kilogram of pharmaceutical grade vitamin D3 (colecalciferol
USP) costs USD$13,553 from a US supplier (link), or USD$2500 from a Chinese
100 years supply at 4000IU a day is 3.7 grams, which is USD$9.25 at the
Chinese wholesale price. So, not counting the cost and effort of
splitting it into 5,200 weekly capsules (there's no need to take it
every day), a vast array of diseases and chronic conditions could be
largely or entirely avoided, for 9 cents a year.
It is clear that vitamin D deficiency plays a crucial, causative, role
in many lung diseases. It is reasonable to assume that it plays a
crucial role in most of the suffering and death caused by
COVID-19. The same would be true of the most serious consequences
If everyone in the world took a decent amount of vitamin D, such as
4000IU, it would be reasonable to expect that COVID-19 wouldn't be such
a big deal. It would be a new virus, which makes some people ill
for a while, and it would cause few if any deaths worldwide.
So the entire human world is being
disrupted, and hundreds of thousands or millions of people are going to
die because they didn't take an adequate vitamin D supplement?
As far as I can see, this is true.
So why are our health authorities not urging everyone to take vitamin
D? Now? Or years ago? Hopefully they will.
There would be far less work for doctors and hospitals, and billions of
dollars less spent on drugs. One can imagine a conspiracy of drug
companies suppressing vitamin D, boron etc. but I don't think they are
It is as if the medical profession is focussed on sick people, the
complexities of their illnesses, and the costly, difficult and
sophisticated acute interventions they have learned to help these
people get well again.
Yet it is easy and inexpensive to fix these nutritional deficiencies
such as for vitamin D - which would save so much suffering. It is
a easier than supplementing with potassium, (see kna/
) but that is easier and better than using blood pressure drugs.
It is a lot easier than getting people to give up smoking. And
that is easier than having to cope with the damage smoking causes.
A Canadian graph www.crsociety.org/topic/11678-vitamin-d-recommendations/
relates blood levels to vitamin D3 supplement quantities for underweight, normal,
overweight and obese people. For normal weight people, 4000 IU/d
provides 117 nmol/L, which is 47 ng/ml. Toxicity (PMC6158375) occurs with blood levels more than three times this.
If all adults (who wisely have little UVB exposure) took 4000IU
vitamin D3 a day (a gram every 27 years) then they would avoid
most of the diseases caused by vitamin D deficiency. This chart
from Garland et al. 2014 PMC4103214 shows the importance of achieving at least 40ng/ml.
A chart from
one of the co-authors, (vitamindwiki.com/Chart%20of%20Vitamin%20D%20levels%20vs%20disease%20-%20Grassroots%20Health%20June%202013) labels the various conditions:
(Right click the image to see it at full size.)
Numerous peer-reviewed journal articles showing adequate vitamin
D reduces inflammation AKA sepsis can be found at:
Vitamin D deficiency causes the overly inflammatory process of acne PMC5997051
- and I suspect that boron supplementation alone would probably resolve
this and many of the more serious conditions, since it enables the body to make better use of limited vitamin
D. Since acne is clearly visible, this might be helpful for
clinicians in assessing the need for dietary advice and the risk of
developing chronic diseases and sepsis.
(Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases, 2014. Google reports 227
COVID-19 Vitamin D dose recommendations from doctors
Please let me know any published recommendations not listed here, from
doctors or health authorities - for the public in general, and
especially for the public preparing for COVID-19 infection. These
are implicitly for adults, since children seem not to have much trouble
The nutritional requirements are the same, except for more melatonin for hospitalised patients.
The prophylaxis recommendations are, implicitly, for all adults in the
current (early April) state of expecting to be infected with COVID-19
in the weeks or months to come. The intention is to either
prevent infection (I think this is unlikely to be achieved) or to
reduce the severity of the infection when it occurs, by preparing the
body with nutritional and other items. I believe these are a very good thing
- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 500 mg twice a day.
- Zinc 75 to 100 mg/day (sulphate or gluconate is fine).
- Quercetin 500 to 1000 mg/day.
- Melatonin (slow release): Begin with 0.3mg and increase as tolerated to 1-2 mg at night
- Vitamin D3 5000IU per day.
Please see #marik
below for a link to the latest version of the document, and for some
quotes from the document which explain the purpose of some of the items
listed above. For instance, melatonin is believed to have
- A 2020-03-25 article by John C. Umhau MD (ex-NIH) discusses
studies of vitamin D's ability to protect against respiratory
infections. It includes a link to very widely cited 2007 article
he co-wrote Epidemic Influenza and Vitamin D - in which up to 5000IU was recommended for adults to achieve the 50ng/ml blood levels which appear to protect against viral respiratory infection.
Both the article and the comments are
interesting - however, I think vitamin D will at best slow down the
progression of the infection, rather than prevent it, and that its real
value will be in reducing or eliminating the overly-aggressive
pro-inflammatory immune response which causes the sepsis.
In the comments, Donna Hurlock MD recommends 4000IU to 5000IU.
There is discussion of magnesium, calcium, vitamin K2 and other
- Version 2 (2020-03-30) of an extensive review article:
Evidence That Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths (2020)
William B. Grant et al.
To reduce risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d. The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40–60 ng/ml (100–150 nmol/l). For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful.
The highest recommendation is 10ug, which is only 400IU.
- Helga M Rhein GP (retired) of Edinburgh wrote comment at the BMJ site: www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m810/rr-9 that one third of the Scottish population is severely vitamin D deficient. She recommends up to 100ug = 4000IU vitamin D a day and cites a 2011 survey
which reports an average of 37.5 nmol/L. This is an alarmingly
low average of 15ng/ml. They regarded anything above 10ng/ml as
"optimal" and one third of the population had levels below this:
>= 25nmol/L (10ng/ml) 67%
< 25nmol/L (10ng/ml) 33%
< 15nmol/L ( 6ng/ml) 12%
Looking at the chart above regarding ARDS, these levels place a
significant proportion of the population at high risk of ARDS when they
contract COVID-19. Likewise looking at the all cause mortality
and burden of disease charts above - only a subset of the population
would have a level which offers them significant protection from a
variety of diseases.
Omega 3 PUFAs
The same is true of omega 3 fatty acids. I believe that if the
WHO et al. recommended adults take 2 grams of fish oil a day and
4000IU vitamin D3, that this - to the extent that people were
willing and able to comply - would significantly reduce disease
severity and death for hundreds of millions of people, especially
with a Western, indoor, lifestyle.
openheart.bmj.com/content/5/2/e000946 Importance of maintaining a low omega–6/omega–3 ratio for
reducing inflammation (2018)
A systematic review of 26 randomised
controlled trials (RCTs) concluded, ‘Dietary omega-3 fatty
acids are associated with plasma biomarker levels,
reflecting lower levels of inflammation and endothelial
activation in cardiovascular disease and other chronic and
acute diseases, including chronic renal disease, sepsis and
Indeed, supplementing with fish oil is known to inhibit
inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta and
proinflammatory/proaggregatory eicosanoids such as
thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin E2.
(2017) N-3 PUFAs induce inflammatory tolerance by formation of KEAP1-containing SQSTM1/p62-bodies and activation of NFE2L2
It may be best to recommend zinc
supplements, since Zn++ in the cytoplasm inhibits viral RNA synthesis - including zinc
lozenges to slow the initial infection in the throat, before it gets
into the lungs. Zinc is needed for hundreds of enzymes. Please
see what Google scholar returns for zinc inflammation immune.
Another potential reason for advising people take, for instance, 25mg
zinc per day as chelate is that oral zinc 225mg a day (as best I
understand it) is recommended for patients who do not yet need
breathing support. Paul Marik's COVID-19 Treatment Strategy - see below #marik .
I suggest you recommend a
substantial but safe level of vitamin C oral supplementation,
since it is known to reduce respiratory infections and to reduce sepsis when used intravenously. A
vet reports IV vitamin C is routinely used for saving animals from
She cites Paul Marik MD (www.pilotonline.com/news/health/article_7a3063e5-24cf-56c1-b25c-142731604196.html)
who uses IV vitamin C and hyrdocortisone with success against
sepsis in humans.
Paul Marik's COVID-19 Treatment Strategy - see below #marik
- recommends 500mg oral vitamin C 2 or 3 times a day for patients who
do not require breathing support, and for those in ICU, intravenous
vitamin C 3 grams every 6 hours. From (2017) Vitamin C and Immune Function :
Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher
susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact
on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic
requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be
able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections.
Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes
that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e.,
100–200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels.
treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram)
doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory
response and metabolic demand.
Soon, hundreds of millions of people with COVID-19 breathing
difficulties will be at home, unable to access care in hospitals or
doctors' clinics. Should uninfected people be advised to take
250mg vitamin C a day, and those with fever, sore throats and/or
breathing difficulties (sepsis induced pneumonia) be advised to take
1000mg or more, subject to concerns about diarrhea? (I assume
that for the duration of the illness kidney stones are not a
significant concern: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4769668/ )
Intravenous vitamin C 1500mg 3 or 4 times a day (with
hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and other drugs) is helping COVID-19
patients in New York: nypost.com/2020/03/24/new-york-hospitals-treating-coronavirus-patients-with-vitamin-c/
Dr Andrew G. Weber said:
patients who received vitamin C did significantly better than those who
did not get vitamin C. “It helps a tremendous amount, but it is
not highlighted because it’s not a sexy drug.
Vitamin C levels in coronavirus patients drop dramatically when they
suffer sepsis, an inflammatory response that occurs when their bodies
overreact to the infection. It makes all the sense in the world
to try and maintain this level of vitamin C.
Since mid March, our supermarket has been sold out of vitamin C.
Vitamin B1 thiamine
(Not to be confused with theanine, as found in green tea.)
I have not studied thiamine (WP), but a Google Scholar search for thiamine inflammation turns up plenty of articles, such as:
(2014) The effect of thiamine deficiency on inflammation, oxidative stress and cellular migration in an experimental model of sepsis
This begins with numerous references regarding thiamine deficiency and critically ill patients, neurodegeneration etc.
My reason for including it here is that vitamin B1 is a component of the
Paul Marik's COVID-19 Treatment Strategy - see below #marik,
though not for patients with mild symptoms. Those with breathing
difficulties, in ICU, are given 200mg thiamine every 12 hours, orally
or intravenously. This seems a lot, considering the RDA is 1.0 to
1.2mg. This search turns up various relevant articles.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206928/ (2018) Ascorbic
acid, corticosteroids, and thiamine in sepsis: a review of the biologic
rationale and the present state of clinical evaluation
The ordinary retail B complex tablet my wife Tina and I take every day
has 15mg of vitamin B1. Our multivitamin has 2.2mg. Given the
correlation between low vitamin B1 and sepsis, it seems prudent to take
ordinary vitamin B1 supplements, especially since it is "relatively
nontoxic" www.drugs.com/monograph/thiamine-hydrochloride.html .
In this section I want to raise your awareness of boron
as an essential nutrient which could save hundred of millions of people
from sepsis-induced illness and death with COVID-19. Please take
a look at a recent review article:
PMC4712861/ Nothing Boring about Boron (2015)
the work of long-time US Department of Agriculture boron researcher, Forrest Nielsen,
and the research cited at: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Boron-HealthProfessional/ .
(2011, cited by 60.)
advantage of boron over the other micronutrients mentioned here is that
while supplies of the others could easily be snapped up if everyone
wanted them, there is plenty of boron for the whole population sitting
on supermarket shelves, in the form of laundry borax.
It is a scandal that boron is not officially recognised as an
essential nutrient. Most people turn their noses up at the
thought. The word sounds like "boring" and rhymes with "moron".
They know borax is used in laundry, as a welding flux, as an ant and
cockroach poison and in children's slime. Many people recoil at
the idea of ingesting boron, because they see borax is the active
ingredient of Ant Rid (8.5% borax). But boron is in many foods, and vitamin D3 is a widely used rat and mouse poison. (See my second comment at quillette.com/2020/03/22/covid-19-statistical-and-science-update-for-march-22/ .)
pure mineral borax - sodium tetraborate - is mined at large scale in
Turkey and California, and then refined into the bright crystals sold in
supermarkets. USP boron is used in nutritional supplements and
medication, but it is difficult to obtain at a retail level.
If a drug company found a patentable compound with boron's health
benefits and safety profile - including especially its ability to
restrain the body's overactive, sepsis-causing, inflammatory
response - then we would all be singing its praises and paying top
dollar for it.
Borax, 100mg a day, in water solution, provides 11.36mg
boron a day, and I believe this will significantly reduce the
is killing COVID-19 patients. (I have a box of journal articles
on boron, and no time now to write up an annotated bibliography of boron
Laundry borax is available by the kilogram in most
supermarkets. My wife Tina and I use this - plain laundry borax
is plenty pure enough. (The Eti mine in Turkey, which produces 47% of the world's borax,
specifies its technical grade borax to have no more than 15ppm Fe: www.etimaden.gov.tr/storage/uploads/2018/01/10-2017-Borax_Deca_Powder.pdf) We use: www.blants.com.au/product/natural-pure-borax-900g/ .
Our 12mg boron a day greatly
improves on the typical 1mg a day in the average American diet (ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Boron-Consumer/ & ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Boron-HealthProfessional/), and is well
within the tolerable maximum of 20mg a day (nap.edu/10026/):
From Nothing Boring about Boron:
number of papers have indicated that boron reduces levels of
inflammatory biomarkers. In a recent human trial involving healthy male
volunteers (n = 8), a significant increase in concentrations of plasma
boron occurred 6 hours after supplementation with 11.6 mg of boron,
coupled with significant decreases in levels of hs-CRP and TNF-α. One week of boron supplementation 10 mg/d resulted in a 20% decrease in the plasma concentration of TNF-α
[tumor necrosis factor alpha], from 12.32 to 9.97 pg/mL, and in
remarkable decreases (approximately 50%) in plasma concentration of hs-CRP [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein], from 1460 to 795 ng/mL, and of
IL-6, from 1.55 to 0.87 pg/mL.
Is boron adequacy important? Consider that elevated hs-CRP is
associated with an increased risk for breast cancer, obesity and
metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children, atherosclerosis, unstable
angina, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver
disease (NAFLD), metastatic prostate cancer, lung cancer, adult
depression, depression in childhood and psychosis in young adult life,
coronary heart disease, and stroke.
An assessment of high hs-CRP levels in www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.119.012638 is:
patients with myocardical infarction [heart attack] exhibit elevated
hsCRP levels. Besides identifying populations at high-inflammatory
risk, this study extends the prognostic validity of this biomarker from
trial evidence to real-world healthcare settings.
Please take a look at vitamindwiki.com/Vitamin+D+and+Boron which links to articles such as M R Naghii et al. 2011:
far as I know, 12mg / day boron is safe for most people, but it is
probably best to start with 3mg and increase from there. The two
possible adverse reactions I am aware of are:
Comparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines
10mg boron per day raised Vitamin D levels and reduced inflammatory cytokine levels.
- I have read of arthritis and candida sufferers initially having a Herxheimer reaction (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jarisch%E2%80%93Herxheimer_reaction) due to the death of harmful micro-organisms.
- Several peer-reviewed journal articles by M R Naghii et al. in
Iran report that 10mg or so boron a day causes ultrasound-confirmed
kidney stones to disintegrate and leave the body. This is an
important finding since it implies that some or all classes of kidney
stone only exist due to the boron deficient state of most of the
Preliminary Evidence Hints at a Protective Role for Boron in Urolithiasis (2012)
The full article via SciHub: sci-hub.tw/10.1089/acm.2011.0865
Getting rid of kidney stones without surgery or drugs is a good
outcome, but the fragments can be painful and disturb the urethra,
which can cause a UTI (Urinary Tract Infection).
3mg boron capsules are readily available, but in the current
emergency, I think it would be good to instruct people to get a
heaped teaspoon of borax (about 8 grams), divide it by 4, and
dissolve each quarter in 2 litres of water. Two 50ml drinks a day
provides 11.36 mg boron.
500 grams of borax is enough for 5,000 days at this rate, so a single
borax purchase would help a dozen or so households through the current
Everyone knows that most people consume too much salt. See some journal article links below #salt concerning excessive salt consumption driving pro-inflammatory immune responses - and so sepsis.
Faced with the threat of imminent sepsis, I think many people could be
convinced by consistent medical advice to go easy on salt.
This should go along with the obligatory warnings to reduce or
eliminate smoking and alcohol.
Regular moderate exercise helps build a robust and well-regulated
(against sepsis) immune system. This 2018 article argues against
the view that intense exercise decreases immune competency: pubmed/29713319.
|Epidemiological evidence indicates that regular physical activity and/or
frequent structured exercise reduces the incidence of many chronic
diseases in older age, including communicable diseases such as viral and
bacterial infections, as well as non-communicable diseases such as
cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders.
The challenge is to maintain or increase regular exercise in a time of social distancing and shelter-in-place.
Potassium supplementation with potassium gluconate solution is superior to blood pressure medication
Please see the separate page on this: http://aminotheory.com/cv19/kna/ .
Overcoming Western Medicine's blind spots in the next week or two
Conventional Western medicine excels at surgery and other acute
interventions, but has blind-spots regarding nutrition and chronic
Since there is no money to be made from the nutrients mentioned
above, their full benefits are known only to some clinicians and
researchers. In the developed world, most people are deficient in
potassium, vitamin D and especially boron. This leads to illness with
aging, diabetes, stroke, CVD, sepsis etc.
As best we know, SARS-CoV-2 will induce debilitating and potentially
deadly sepsis in 5 to 20% of the population in April, May and June. The
terrible toll which is likely to come from this is due, in large part,
to easily corrected nutritional inadequacies. These they can be solved,
since the necessary nutrients are widely available. It is not right for me to be making such recommendations to the
public at large, since I have no medical training. I am an electronic
technician, computer programmer and amateur neuroscientist: aminotheory.com/rlsd/briefsumm/ . To the extent that advice such as the above is valid, it needs to come from clinicians and health authorities, in the first week or so of April.
(On 2020-03-31, Paul Marik's protocol recommends 5000IU vitamin D a day
for adults, before infection and after, for mild symptoms. I
think this is an excellent development. I hope that intakes such
as this will soon be recommended by national health authorities and/or
COVID-19 and sepsis resources for healthcare professionals
- [#ssc] Some aspects of the medical establishment are overly-resistant to new information: emcrit.org/pulmcrit/coronavirus/
. This 2020-02-04 article, by Josh Farkas MD (associate professor of
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Vermont) is
also critical of some aspects of the current WHO COVID-19
guidelines. It starts with a picture of someone drowning.
Surviving Sepsis Campaign is a blight on modern, evidence-based
medicine[2018-ref]. It's been clear for some years that its fundamentals were
flawed (centering around rapid, large-volume fluid resuscitation).
Rather than adapt guidelines to modern evidence, the campaign recently
doubled down on immediate administration of fluid and antibiotics
within one hour. This provoked widespread protest, including a
petition to retire the Surviving Sepsis Campaign that garnered over
6,000 signatures.[ref] Whether or not to retire the campaign was openly
debated in the journal CHEST.
Change takes time, meanwhile the Surviving Sepsis Campaign continues to
lumber forward. One consequence of this is that recommendations in the
one-hour sepsis bundle have started to creep into other literature. If
30 cc/kg fluid and antibiotics are good for septic shock, then perhaps
they're beneficial for other patients? One example of collateral
damage from these guidelines is their mis-application to viral
- [#marik] "Marik Protocol" is an informal name for a series of recommendations regarding critical care patients, including IV vitamin C and vitamin B1.
The latest version of this PDF document can be found at the link EVMS Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol at: www.evms.edu/covid-19/medical_information_resources/
This may be referred to by other sites, such as in the FOAMed on COVID-19 section of emcrit.org/ibcc/covid19/ , which links to their own, possibly no longer up-to-date, version of the document.
See above #03-vit-d-dose for dietary arrangements it recommends. Here are some of
the notes, which relate to dietary items, listed above, from the
2020-03-31 version of the document. (Clinicians should refer
directly to the latest PDF, since what follows may not be up-to-date.)
We are all inhabitants of the same planet and we are all in this
together. The medical community needs to get off their "high pedestal"
and act decisively and right now; there is no time to
2. It is likely that 40-80% of the population across the world will become infected with this virus.
It is therefore unrealistic for us to expect this will just go away.
Our goal should therefore to reduce the mortality in those who are at
greatest risk of dying. This requires that those at risk to "socially"
isolate themselves. Once they become infected, we should treat
aggressively to prevent disease progression.
3. The course of the disease is quite predictable. Acute
respiratory failure occurs on day 6-8 (due to cytokine storm). In those
patients requiring supplemental oxygen, we need to be very aggressive
to prevent progression to ARDS. Once ARDS develops the mortality is
4. This is not your "typical" ARDS. Chest CT shows bilateral,
discreet, irregular, multi-lobar infiltrates and not the typical
dependent air-space consolidation (“sponge lung”) characteristic of the
usual ARDS. Physiologically "COVID-19 ARDS" is different; our
preliminary data suggests that lung water (EVLWI) is only marginally
increased. Furthermore, lung compliance is quite good yet severe
hypoxia (due to shunting). Cause unclear?? Microvascular
7. Zinc (Zn++ ) inhibits
viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (replicase). Chloroquine and
hydroxychloroquine are potent Zn ionophores that increase intracellular
8. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
has numerous proven biological properties (anti-inflammatory,
anti-oxidant, immune enhancing, antiviral) that are likely to be of
benefit in patients with COVID-19 disease.
9. Very recent data suggests that in addition to being a potent ant-oxidant, melatonin
may have direct antiviral effects against COVID-19. In healthy people,
melatonin levels plummet after the age of 40 years. This may partly
explain the increased risk of death in patients with COVID-19 who are
over the age of 40. Melatonin may therefore have a role in both the
prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
10. Vitamin D has important
immune enhancing effects. Much of the population, especially the
elderly have sub-optimal vitamin C levels, particularly during the
winter months. Low vitamin D levels have been shown to increase the
risk of developing viral upper respiratory tract infections. Therefore,
prophylactic vitamin D should be considered especially in the
11. Quercetin is a plant
phytochemical. Experimental and early clinical data suggests that this
compound has broad antiviral properties (including against coronavirus)
and acting at various steps in the viral life cycle. Quercetin is a
potent inhibitor of heat shock proteins (HSP 40 and 70) which are
required for viral assembly. This readily available and cheap plant
derived compound may play a role in the prophylaxis of COVID-19 in high
A 2018 article about this by Paul Marik and colleagues: Ascorbic
acid, corticosteroids, and thiamine in sepsis: a review of the biologic
rationale and the present state of clinical evaluation www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206928/
contains a big diagram and explanation.
|Humans (and anthropoid apes) have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin
C and therefore have an impaired stress response. The inability to
produce vitamin C has serious implications in septic humans. Treatment
with vitamin C appears to restore the stress response and improve the
survival of stressed humans
- www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOmd2R9LM84 Dr. Paul E. Marik,
MD, FCCP (Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A) is Professor of Medicine and Chief
of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical
School (US) and a world-renowned expert in sepsis and critical care
medicine. Dr Paul Marik has written over 400 peer-reviewed journal
articles, 50 book chapters and authored 4 critical care books.
colleagues, when I told them what was going on, thought it was the
biggest load of nonsense they had ever seen. But then they
actually saw that none of our patients were dying. And then our
CEO saw that none of the patients were dying. So this has become
instituted through the whole healthcare system.
"We were going to do a randomised clinical trial, but we couldn't - because it would have been unethical."
- Kristina E. Rudd et al. 2020: Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990–2017: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)32989-7/fulltext report that in 2017 there were about 48.9 million deaths from sepsis, representing about 19.7% of all deaths.
- A 2019 article reporting that rats fed the equivalent of a Western diet, high in sugar and saturated fats
(omega 3 fatty acids found in fish and algae are unsaturated) had much
higher levels (estimated from gene expression) of the pro-inflammatory
(tumor necrosis factor) and IL-6 (interleukin-6) than rats fed
fiber-rich chow, when injected with a bacterial endotoxin
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elsewhere described as "the most potent
microbial mediator implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic
shock". Western diet regulates immune status and the response to LPS-driven sepsis independent of diet-associated microbiome www.pnas.org/content/116/9/3688
- [#salt] High salt (NaCl) and low potassium intakes are common - but
perhaps, in a crisis such as this, some people might be persuaded to moderate their salt intake,
and eat more vegetables and fruits high in potassium. There are
no doubt multiple negative outcomes from this high salt regime.
Researchers with more expertise than I have might be able to construct
an salt lowering strategy for COVID-19 along the following lines:
- (2013) Sodium Chloride Drives Autoimmune Disease by the Induction of Pathogenic Th17 Cells PMC3746493
T helper cells 17, which produce interleukin 17. "The Th17 cells
generated under high-salt display a highly pathogenic and stable
phenotype characterized by the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory
cytokines GM-CSF, TNFα and IL-2."
- (2017) Th17/Regulatory
T Cell Imbalance in Sepsis Patients with Multiple Organ Dysfunction
Syndrome: Attenuated by High-volume Hemofiltration journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.5301/ijao.5000625 "The level of Th17/Treg imbalance in sepsis is related to the occurrence and prognosis of multiple organ dysfunction."
- (2019) Where there is sodium there may be sepsis www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6735289/ "Although sepsis patients with hypernatremia face a greater mortality
rate, there is a lack of studies examining a potential association
between hypernatremia and sepsis."
COVID-19 and sepsis links:
- Dr Roger Seheult's extraordinary Coronavirus Pandemic video updates on YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/MEDCRAMvideos/videos
These are for clinicians, researchers and well-informed lay
people. References are in the text under the video. I learned a lot from these videos, including about the
deadly use of aspirin in the Spanish Flu.
- Update 42:
Early and late antibodies (immunoglobulins). Rhesus monkey research
showing viral shedding peaked 3 days after infection, where the virus
was in the body, the development of immunity (antibodies) and how this
prevented the monkeys from being re-infected a
second time. 28 days after infection, no viruses could be
detected and chest X-rays were normal. Progress on antibody
tests. RT-PCR tests are only about 60 to 70% sensitivity, at
least in some countries - for instance, in South Korean the tests may
be better. (13:24 he pronounces his surname like "shwelt" - his great
uncle was a physician too.)
- Dr Emily Landon (University of Chicago) speaking of the necessity of extreme Shelter in Place arrangements to quell the spread of the virus: www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHUuWq6y8F0 (transcript).
- 2020-02-21 report from an ICU doctor in New Orleans
on the large numbers of patients with extremely serious symptoms,
including those who are in their 40s and have no known pre-existing
These symptoms leading to respiratory distress and death are due to
excessive inflammatory response. To what extent are these people
taking aspirin, ibuprofen or whatever in the early stages of their
disease? To what extent are they deficient in vitamin D, omega 3
fatty acids, boron, vitamin C? Most people are deficient in all
these nutrients and more.
| Instead of temporarily overreacting, people are hesitating,
preparing less and taking fewer precautions than the knots in their
stomachs say they should – beset by self-doubt that maybe they’re wrong
and fear of embarrassment that maybe others will mock them. Perhaps the
most challenging job public health officials face right now is helping
us bear these feelings and ambivalences – and, of course, bearing their
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